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Turquoise is a natural occurring gemstone having complex chemical composition of copper, aluminum phosphate and traces of iron which is sourced from Iran, U.S.A. (Arizona, New Mexico), Tibet, Mexico, Egypt, Australia and China. It is an opaque stone which comes in blue, greenish blue and yellowish green color. Turquoise having spider web pattern is known as spiderweb turquoise, which is generally used in jewelries and beads.
On magnification, using 10x lens or microscope, one can see matrix background which contains blackish metallic inclusions. Turquoise is often dyed to enhance color and to add matrix (spiderweb pattern) effect. Turquoise should be kept away from body oils, perfumes and hydrochloric acid as it may cause splotches of discoloration, and also a change of color.
Turquoises are also being made in lab which is known as “synthetic turquoise” by a company called Gilson. Eye separation of a natural turquoise from a synthetic one is not possible. Therefore, it is wise to purchase high valued turquoise beads which have been verified by reputed gemological lab.